A Little Transistor History?

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MrAl
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A Little Transistor History?

Post by MrAl » Wed Mar 24, 2010 1:32 pm

Hello there,


I have a transistor, GE168A, and i would like to know the year it was made if possible. It must have been
a really long time ago because it used a 'crimp' style housing package, where there is a small metal tube
emulating from the body where the air had been evacuated and then it was crimped on the end.
I looked on the web and couldnt find anything at all.

It looks exactly like this one (except the number of course):
http://semiconductormuseum.com/PhotoGal ... _2N169.htm

Thanks much.
LEDs vs Bulbs, LEDs are winning.

dyarker
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Re: A Little Transistor History?

Post by dyarker » Wed Mar 24, 2010 5:21 pm

Hi Al,
No date code like the one you linked to?
Dale Y

Dean Huster
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Re: A Little Transistor History?

Post by Dean Huster » Wed Mar 24, 2010 6:26 pm

Mr. Al, I have three of the 2N169A that look exactly like that and are probably not more than just 2 or 3 years newer. Code on the back of mine say "039" which possibly means week 39 of 1960. I doubt that they're from 1950. So my educated guess would be that your 2N168 might hail from the mid- to late-1950s. But then I try guessing at winning Powerball numbers and miss those all the time.
Dean Huster, Electronics Curmudgeon
Contributing Editor emeritus, "Q & A", of the former "Poptronics" magazine (formerly "Popular Electronics" and "Electronics Now" magazines).

R.I.P.

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Re: A Little Transistor History?

Post by Robert Reed » Wed Mar 24, 2010 9:07 pm

I know Motorola used them in their early portable radios as late as 1959.

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Re: A Little Transistor History?

Post by MrAl » Thu Mar 25, 2010 7:26 am

Hi again,


Dean:
Well this time you got it right :smile:
I somehow missed the date code i think because it was only three numbers in stead of the usual four.
As dyarker was saying i could simply check the date code, which was what i did.
I can see now that this transistor was made in 1957 in the 30th week. Very interesting.

Robert:
Wow, that sure is a long time ago. I guess that was one of the first transistor radios then.

dyarker:
Yes thanks, that worked out pretty well. I found the date code on the back.
LEDs vs Bulbs, LEDs are winning.

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Re: A Little Transistor History?

Post by MrAl » Fri Mar 26, 2010 10:50 am

Hi,


I also found a couple 2N4048 transistors, which are 'high speed germanium' transistors.
I wonder if they are made anymore.
LEDs vs Bulbs, LEDs are winning.

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Re: A Little Transistor History?

Post by Bygar » Sat Sep 03, 2011 11:40 am

Your 2N168A is listed in the 2nd edition GE transistor manual.
It is a NPN rate grown germanium transistor, designed for mixer/oscillator,
IF amplifier applications.
Vcbo max. 15 Volts.
I Collector max. 20 mA.
Listed in a GE publication May 1, 1956.
I still have some old data books.

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Re: A Little Transistor History?

Post by Dean Huster » Sat Sep 03, 2011 1:18 pm

Oh, what the heck .... I can help keep an old OP going. Anyone remember the Raytheon CK722? It was one of the most popular hobbyist transistors of the 1960s. You could get a bag of 10 of the things for a buck from Poly-Paks. 'Course, the Poly-Pak transistors didn't always work as advertised......
Dean Huster, Electronics Curmudgeon
Contributing Editor emeritus, "Q & A", of the former "Poptronics" magazine (formerly "Popular Electronics" and "Electronics Now" magazines).

R.I.P.

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Externet
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Re: A Little Transistor History?

Post by Externet » Sun Sep 04, 2011 8:29 pm

I will get reeeeeaaaally spanked this time.

Please delete if improper.
Sorry, lost the link; this is text copied from a file in my compfuser pasted here.
Way too long for the forum, but here it goes.
It is a loooong weird twist for "History of the transistor"

Much of the text is irrelevant to the subject, but... :shock:

=========================================


Edited from a lecture given by
Jack Shulman
President
American Computer Company
at the Global Sciences Congress
Florida, USA, 11&endash;17 March 1999
(Audiotape transcribed by Ruth Parnell)

Hi, I'm Jack Shulman. I'm the head of the American Computer Company.
American Computer Company is part of the Technology International Group and
Bell North America group of companies. I'm also one of the owners of the
group of companies. I've been in the computer industry for about 28 or 29
years. I've worked for IBM as a professional services management
consultant. I worked on the development of the personal computer in 1978
for FIT [Fashion Institute of Technology] and Simplicity Patterns, later
adopted by IBM. I developed something called the "pattern creator". That's
where we got the term "PC". Prior to that, I'd developed what you might
call the first windowing operating system in 1975 for Citibank, and before
that there were earlier versions I did for a company called Vydec. I'm a
serious computer person - very, very serious - and also someone who's not
generally inclined to leap to great predispositions about any unusual
subject.

Well, as it turns out, a few years ago I got my dose of reality. It was in
the form of a visit from a friend of mine. When I was very young I'd got
involved in technology, partly by virtue of the influence of a friend's
father. I grew up in central New Jersey, which is around where AT&T and
Bell Labs originated, and my friend's father was the head of Bell Labs. I
ended up at a private school and ended up living at the household of the
head of Bell Labs, going to that private school and going to college with
his son as a roommate, and I kind of grew up around the various projects at
Bell Laboratories in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

I'd always held out that AT&T was this rather magnificent institution.
Anybody here worked for AT&T in the past? So, you know when I say Bell Labs
research, I'm speaking Holy Grail; and in certain parts of the defence
community and in government I'm also speaking Holy Grail. Anyone here
realise that AT&T and Bell Laboratories ran our nuclear arsenal for 45
years? Anybody who knows that, raise your hand. Not a one of you. I didn't
really even know until a little bit later in my career, but I knew
something strange was going on because it always seemed to me that AT&T
always had what it needed to make innovations in technology, and
subsequently such technology would migrate to an IBM or a Sarnoff Research
or to an RCA.

And I could never really figure out, in the course of my young life, who
were these magnificent, incredible scientists, other than that I frequently
met them...like a fellow by the name of William Shockley. He was quite a
frequent friend to Jack Morton's household, and I knew him, and I knew some
of the other folks that he knew, like a fellow by the name of - well, I
guess not too many people would know him - Bob Noyce, and Jack Kilby who
was an acquaintance of theirs, and so forth. These names, if you've ever
worked for AT&T or in the electronics industry, are also Holy Grail names.
These are Mount Rushmores of the technology industry. Jack Kilby is
credited with the invention of the integrated circuit.

I was rather shocked when, about late 1995, a dear friend came to me. He
was at one time one of the very well known generals in the Pentagon, a
member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and is now a consultant. I'd known him
a very long time through the Morton family and Bell and when working for
IBM. He asked me to analyse some documents that he had in his possession.
He showed me some pictures. I kind of turned up my nose. I said, "I don't
believe this." He suggested they were pictures of an alien craft. I said to
him, "Well, why do you come to me and ask me this?" "Because there are some
documents that fell into my possession that I would also like you to see,
that go beyond these drawings, these pictures, these photographs, that
describe some technology; and I would like you to analyse this technology
and make a determination for me of the veracity of these documents, help me
to authenticate them." I said, "Fine. I don't believe this is real. I'm
sceptical. I don't believe in aliens, I don't believe in UFOs, I don't
believe in any of that." And he said, "Okay, well, I'd still want you to
take a look at them, Jack." And I agreed.

I met with him at his home. I met a woman by the name of Mrs Jeffrey
Proscauer. That's not her real name, but it's the name she goes by; she
does not want her true identity revealed. And I got a chance to piece and
look through some 28 boxes of materials that had come from Western Electric
Laboratories in the late 1940s, 1947, early 1948 and beyond, and some
subsequent documents.
Now again, if you've ever worked for AT&T, you know that the laboratories
at Bell Laboratories are often quite distinct, and the documentation from a
laboratory is kept in an ongoing, growing tome called a "Lab Shopkeeper's
Notebook". It turns out that even in the super-secret laboratories, the
ones in the part of Western Electric or Bell Laboratories that manage the
nuclear arsenal, these notebooks are kept, and they grow and they're
ongoing and they become almost like a living representation of what that
laboratory did for a living.

Well, such as it is, I was rather shocked at what I had to see there in
these boxes of materials, and I convinced them to let me look at them over
the course of about three-and-a-half weeks. They were kept at the
consultant's house during that time period, and he actually kept a security
guard with them at all times because he was afraid that someone might come
and steal them. Now of course, I wasn't sure why he was afraid, because at
the time I didn't realise the full magnitude of what I was looking at.

In any event, after about two or three weeks of looking at them, I came
back to him and we sat down over what turned out to be a Christmas Eve
dinner, and I said to him: "I've got to tell you something. I'm having a
real problem with this because what you're showing me looks like technology
that we have not yet developed, that humanity has not yet developed, yet
the documents you're showing me appear to be forty-eight, forty-nine years
old. This would put them in 1947, 1948, 1949."

I suggested to him that before I could proceed I would have to have someone
verify the age, carbon-date or come up with some other means to verify the
age of the documents, and he agreed. So, with the help of a mutual
acquaintance - a private investigator formerly with the Justice Department
- we were able to take fragments of the documents without damaging them.

We sent them to an expert who formerly consulted for Scotland Yard; he's a
fairly well known forensic expert at...I believe it's the University of
Edinburgh in Scotland today; he was at a different university at the time.
He analysed these fragments of these documents for me, and came back and
told me that the ink, the paper, even the presentations were valid; that
this was in fact a book or series of books from the 1947, '48, '49, 1950
time period. That took him about four and a half weeks of analysis, and I
was for four and a half weeks, as you can imagine, holding my breath.
The things that I saw described in this Lab Shopkeeper's Notebook consisted
of things that today would be more powerful than the Intel Pentium
processor, for instance, or the Cray supercomputer. There were
communications devices that were described; there were ways to sandwich-in
very, very thin, micrometre-thin layers; special metals to produce moving
parts for things like...from the descriptions that I read, the nearest
thing I could describe...an anti-gravity propulsion unit for a spacecraft.
They included dynamic electronic and power-control technology that even to
this day we have not yet developed. They included communications technology
that was described only as having been taken from an object of unknown or
unearthly origin. The documents were very carefully worded not to reveal
what was, in reality, in these boxes of materials.

I was sort of at a loss at that juncture, because even though we had
forensic information at the time from this particular forensic expert that
would date these boxes back to the late '40s, and even though they said
"Western Electric, Bell Laboratories", part of them said something called
"Z-Division" on them. We knew of the Z-Division: it was a segment of the
United States Army, formed in 1947 and 1948. The implications were that
this project was operating on the fringes of the nuclear bomb development
project - then known as the Manhattan Project Group.

It turns out that in 1947 - between '47 and actually late '48 - Harry
Truman decided he was going to grant a contract to AT&T to go through the
overseeing and management of our nuclear arsenal and the commercialisation
of derived product technologies from the nuclear bomb, from the bomb
project: the physics, the electronics, the control systems, even the
ballistics, the radar that was used, the ICBM technology that was under
development in the late '40s after we got a hold of the V-series rockets
from the Nazis, and so forth. The contract was inked by Truman in early
1949, if I recall correctly, but during the prior two-year period there was
an informal relationship, during which AT&T played a greater and greater
role in the organisation of super-secret military weapons-grade projects
for the federal government and eventually got pretty much control of what
was then known as the Z-Division.

Z-Division, believe it or not, originated in Roswell, New Mexico. I guess
the reason is, that is where the original nuclear bomb armada was formed -
the first bomber wing that carried the nuclear bomb - and it migrated over
to Kirtland Air Force Base during the time period when Orlando Lawrence,
the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories fellow, was called in. He was called in
by Teller, Oppenheimer...all those folks responsible for the nuclear
bomb...Leo Szwilard. Lawrence was called in at the time because he could
make accelerators, or "cyclotrons" as they were known at the time. Those
cyclotrons were capable of refining uranium, refining plutonium...well,
actually, back then, they weren't working with plutonium but with uranium.

I guess you could imagine what it must have been like in the time period.
They were in the middle of a war when they were building the nuclear bombs
and they had to do everything secretly, so this Z-Division was created with
super-secrecy as its fundamental core.

Ultimately Lawrence was called in because they had to build enough of an
accelerator to refine enough uranium to make the bomb possible, and, in
spite of all the greatest minds of nuclear physics assigned to the
Z-Division in the Manhattan Project, none of them could figure out how to
refine enough uranium to make the nuclear bomb a possibility. This was
before the first bomb was exploded. So Lawrence was brought in because he
knew how to make a cyclotron; but his cyclotron, the biggest one he'd ever
created, was about the size of this white board over here, and it could
produce about a thimbleful of refined uranium - which would have been about
enough to make a nuclear bomb capable of blowing off your left foot.

In any event, Lawrence one day is called in and he's asked: "How do we
build a cyclotron big enough?" He makes a few calculations and hands a
requisition order to Harold Ackerman - today a federal judge, and who was
the chief supply clerk for the Manhattan Project - to requisition enough
silver to build a big silver racetrack; something like 12 million tons of
silver. In fact, he took it to the United States Treasury, handed it to the
then Secretary of the Treasury - I guess it was Morganthal - and Morganthal
was asked to fill a 12-million-ton order, which also necessitated the
relocation of Z-Division to some place where they could put all this silver
and build this racetrack.

We decided one day at American Computer Company that we were going to be
brave. I talked with my board and I talked with some of the people at the
company and they agreed. "Yeah, we can try this; let's see what happens."

We decided that we were going to take the story that had been conveyed to
me about this unusual Shopkeeper's Notebook with these unusual
technological artifacts in them, and naively and blithely put a panel on
the Internet, describing in black and white and colour what we had found,
and raise the question. However, the picture that we put up was a picture
of Testor's model of the so-called Roswell Lander. It's a picture of what
looks like a spacecraft with wings and a jet propulsion system, with a pod
in the front to hold alien occupants who were piloting it. We superimposed
the picture over an image from the Thunder Range - of course, we picked the
wrong place; the Plains of San Agustin was the right place, actually - and
we put a little bit of rhetoric on this panel and just placed it right in
the middle of our American Computer Company website.

Now that probably was the stupidest thing we ever did. Here's this picture
of a Roswell alien lander sitting on a panel in the middle of a computer
company website, and on it it said something like: "Did AT&T receive stolen
alien technologies from the US Government in 1947 and thereby invent the
transistor, the laser, the integrated circuit, and...on and on and
on...different technologies?" Well, we figured the reaction we would get
from the public would be one of, "Oh gee, isn't that cute? That's funny,
X-Files, you know..." The reaction we got was not one we had anticipated.

Three days after we placed the image onto our website, we received a very
strange series of military faxes to our tech support fax machine, referring
to a piece of hardware known as "Sky Station". Anybody ever hear of
anything called Sky Station? Never heard of it, have you? Well, it's up
there. It's an orbital platform of some kind. We were receiving live
messages from Sky Station for a day or two and we decided this wasn't
right; we were going to call the Pentagon and tell them about it.
So I picked up the phone and first I called Fort Monmouth; then I called
down to Langley Air Force Base. They wanted to know, "Why are you calling
Langley Air Force Base?" Well, where else would I call about a satellite
that's sending messages to our fax machine...talk about sounding
strange...that say this satellite is about to crash, it's coming down, its
communications systems are breaking down. Well, finally we got to somebody
who was of authority. It was Colonel James that we got to, and he gets on
the phone with me...I'm in my car, on my car phone...and he says: "Mr
Shulman, please secure these faxes. Do not let anyone see them. We'll take
care of it. We'll let you know what to do with the faxes." It's like...the
military goes silent.

That next day our offices were broken into. Our front door was smashed, our
glass was smashed to smithereens all over the place, and everything was
taken out of the file cabinets in our offices. My office was a wreck when I
got in there. It was awful. We came in the next day to work and it was
like: what happened, what happened?

I had these faxes in my briefcase. I'd taken them with me, home. So
apparently, by not leaving them there, I probably worsened the situation.
It might have been better if I'd left them there, to be frank; if they'd
found them and had just come and arrested us, taken us away. They were top
level, five-level clearance. We're not supposed to even see or even know
such a thing, but inadvertently, as a result, we became aware of the fact
that there's an orbital DSP [Defense Space Platform], called Sky Station,
which is nuclear-hardened and equipped to carry nuclear weapons, because it
was described in these faxes.

It is not a very pleasant place to be, to discover that now, here we are at
the end of the Cold War with an agreement that there will be no nuclear
weapons in space in orbit, and there is apparently a platform up there that
the United States secretly put up back in the '60s or '70s or '80s, that's
equipped; it's nuclear-hardened, it's one of the Star Wars SDI series,
based on Spacelab, equipped to handle and carry nuclear weapons.

So now, not only did we have a picture of an alleged alien craft on our
website, talking about alien technologies being transferred to AT&T, but we
also were in possession of very high level, Level Five, Top Secret security
clearance military faxes describing something called Sky Station.

That week we had visits from the Air Force Office of Special
Investigations. They came up and they interviewed us. They put me through a
day-long third degree. We didn't want it happening in the middle of our
customers coming in and seeing us or selling personal computers and
servers, so I took them to an out-of-the-way part of the office, down the
hall, down the elevator to a little office downstairs, and I got a query
about everything just short of...well, it included my shoe size, when I was
born, names of parents, names of grandparents, when they entered the
country, driver's licence number. They went through a Q&A with me and with
my staff, that just came short of asking me the wrong question - if you
know what I mean.

We were very startled, naturally. We weren't certain what in fact was going
on, but we're not ones to back down at American Computer so we decided that
instead of running for cover and taking the picture down off of our
website...because we kind of connected that the two things might have
something to do with each other...instead of backing down and turning it
all off, we would go the other direction. So we moved the picture to a
separate section of our website and created an entire website within our
website, called American Computer Company Special Investigation. This is
what happens when you grow up in New Jersey! Of course, we couldn't have
rubbed salt into a deeper wound: "Some have claimed that alien technology
was found on board a UFO crashed in Roswell, 1947. Very dramatic. Is it
true? Did the US military discover something strange in the desert near
Albuquerque, New Mexico? Did they alter human history? Was the transistor
one of those alien marvels? Click here for the original story."

We tried to be a little cute. We put up a picture, and if you go to our
website it's still there. If you go to our main website, http://accpc.com,
at the bottom of the page is a nav bar with a pointer in the middle of the
corporate info products, catalogue, features, tech support, Roswell 1947,
help. You can go to that link and click on it and it'll take you to this
special page which, of course, has now grown tremendously. It has something
like, we estimate, about 9,000 messages and articles now stored within it.
We started off on one Internet server and moved it to five Internet
servers, and now we are on one of our super-servers which consists of four
groups of four Pentium XEONs and three different service-provider carriers
and a whole lot of communications just to handle the load.
We get about, we estimate, three million to three and a half million
visitors a month to the site. And they're not necessarily people like
yourselves, open-minded, interested; they're kids from college, kids from
high schools, military people from countries like Iran...I'm serious! I
mean, we can track some of the addresses that show up in our logs. I didn't
even know Iran had Internet! We've got a very strange reaction to our
story.

What we did in the story was we isolated a few pointers, some of which only
I was privy to. One of them was that there was some relationship between
the government and AT&T that resulted in the transistor's invention. I
mentioned I grew up in the household of the head of Bell Labs, so I knew
that there was something strange about the transistor because I knew Bill
Shockley, and Bill Shockley was something of a witless buffoon. There's no
way he could have invented the transistor.

The symbol for the transistor is made up of three pieces: positive,
positive and negative; or negative, negative and positive...silicon dioxide
doped with arsenic and boron, in 1947. Now, in 1947, doping things with
boron was not easy. It required the sort of equipment that even Bell Labs
in 1946 did not possess. They had this type of equipment at Lawrence
Berkeley Laboratories - but it would have taken thousands and thousands and
thousands of man-hours to invent the transistor.

If you look back at it historically, what AT&T was claiming was that one
day this "genius", William Shockley, was working with a rectifier; he
looked at it and he noticed it had unusual propensities, and there, bingo,
he invented the transistor! He figured it out right there! And to verify
that, the two other "geniuses" that they got to help work on the
transistor, Dr Bardeen and Dr Brattain, both said: "Oh yeah, I remember a
guy by the name of Case was [allegedly] talking about transistors in 1931,
and I knew back then we were going to have them."

That is the history of the transistor at AT&T prior to 1948, other than
claiming it was invented in December of 1947 by Dr Shockley. Anybody
believe that story? Me neither. And I knew, because the administrative head
of the transistor project was Jack Morton - the man at whose house I was
staying to go to school and whose sons I was friends with - and he often
commented on the fact that it was really a shame that those three idiots
got responsibility for the transistor and he didn't. And I always wondered,
because he too didn't possess the scientific ability to develop the
transistor. He was a brilliant man who had invented the radiobroadcast
vacuum tube, the close-spaced triode, but it appears as if he was brought
in to head up the project to try to draw back the transistor in time to
radio tubes and the things that Shockley talked about; and it was as if the
whole thing was just a ploy and he might as easily have been given
responsibility and got the Nobel Prize as Bill Shockley. Professional
jealousy?

In any event, for most of my young life I believed that the transistor had
come from a government project and that they were just hiding its origins.
Which government project, I did not realise until I saw the Shopkeeper's
Notebook in the possession of my friend, the consultant.

Now, I'd heard a lot about Roswell in my life and I'd read the Project Blue
Book books and I'd read a lot of books like Berlitz's books and so forth,
but I was not someone who believed in Roswell, who believed that a UFO had
crashed at Roswell at the time, in any event. There I was, stuck with all
this information and having created this rather minor scandal on the
Internet...well, maybe not minor, with the Air Force coming to visit us.

Next thing I know, radio talk show host Art Bell sends science reporter
Linda Moulton Howe to my office. She has to be there because she has to see
whether or not our offices were actually broken into. A beautiful woman,
very intelligent...she shows up at the office with a tape recorder. I'm
exhausted...the weeks have been going not so good lately, and we're still
picking up the pieces of glass out of the sofas in the lobby. She sees the
windows are broken in the front and we have a wooden partition set up to
try to keep the air out of the building, and she records me answering
questions about all this. I try to be as vague as I can and answer the
questions about what's going on here, and she talks about the story. And
next thing I know, she plays the tape on "Dreamland", on Art's show. I
swear to God, it was the strangest thing we had ever seen happen!

That very next day we got well over 3,000 phone calls from people all
trying to get in to see me personally; they had to come to see me
personally, to tell me about Roswell. We received mail and e-mail by the
10,000 pieces. Our normal 2,000 visitors a day on our World Wide Web site
jumped up so high that one of our carriers refused to carry us anymore.

At that point I realised there's more than just a casual interest on the
part of the public, so we decided we would carry the original ACC Roswell
story right through to its ultimate conclusion. We have been for several
years now.

So, we have publicised the fact that Dr Morton met his untimely death and
that Dr Morton was one of the few people who knew the true history of the
transistor at AT&T - aside from Bill Shockley who would never have talked
because that would have meant the end of his Nobel Prize, along with Drs
Bardeen and Brattain, and Dr Kilby who subsequently went on to bigger and
better things, and he's dead now.

It looked like Dr Morton was breaking camp with AT&T and was very, very
outspoken, very angry with AT&T over this whole thing. Professional
jealousy, I guess. One day in 1972, Dr Morton was found knocked unconscious
and set afire in his Volvo P18 sports coupé, devastating the Morton
household and family - my friends - and for reasons that nobody seemed to
know.

Well, we decided to see whether or not there might be any link, any reason
to link Dr Morton's possible migration to a Japanese firm, and we tried to
make an inquiry about it with the corporate security department at AT&T.
That's when we discovered that there are people working in corporate
security at AT&T who don't want to talk about Dr Morton's untimely death.
Now, you've got to understand, we're talking about something which happened
25 years ago.

So we were investigating further, and I interviewed a member of the Morton
household who was talking about the transistor project and got very, very
teary-eyed when I talked about the transistor. I said, "Oh, did you ever
wonder where the transistor really came from?" It was as if I had cut a
jugular. The conversation ended right there. "Can't discuss this further
with you."

We looked into it a little bit further and it became clear to us that Dr
Morton was probably responsible for this Shopkeeper's Notebook working its
way outside of AT&T - probably, because he was the principal investigator.
Everybody knows what a principal investigator is. Involved in any
government project you have a principal investigator. They have to name
somebody to take the blame. When AT&T screws up, they have to have someone
to fire, and they're certainly not going to pick someone important enough
in their view; they're going to pick the one that everybody doesn't like.
He was a tough guy; very, very strong-minded; and everybody didn't like him
that much, so they made him the principal investigator.

There were other people involved, apparently. There was a fellow by the
name of Ramey. He was a figure at the Department of the Army. He was named
in the documents. There were quite a few other people named in the
documents. We're not revealing all of the people at this particular
juncture because of Mrs Proscauer who won't allow us to give out certain
things. And in order to continue on an ongoing basis having access to these
documents and so-called Notebook, we're very cautious about the information
we give out.

In any event, we decided to depict in a series of pages on the Internet the
entirety of the story of what we'd been going through, going on the theory
that one of the ways you can protect yourself from, for instance, being
assassinated by having information in your possession that's dangerous to
others, is to publicise it as widely as you possibly can - which is what we
did. Of course, there's a certain drawback to that approach. The drawback
was that within no time the attacks, the onslaughts, the assaults, the
death threats, the credibility attacks, the undermining of credibility, the
public humiliation, pain and suffering began.

We found ourselves besieged by what I can only describe as a multilateral
black project, which included death threats on myself and my family, death
threats on our employees, pictures of me with bullet holes and blood
dripping out, on the Internet, out of the blue...a really, really strange
thing to have happen. We had people come up and claim they had been hired
by us to verify the claims that technology like this originated on an alien
spacecraft.

And you've got to understand, we didn't say that it originated on an alien
spacecraft. We asked the question, "Did it originate...?" Would you run
around on the Internet saying this technology came from an alien
spacecraft? No. You'd ask the question. You'd say, "Let's put together the
evidence; let's find out."

We decided we would approach a higher authority, ask the question to the
higher authority and make it a matter of public record. So, who is a higher
authority, other than, say, Bill Clinton, that you might go to to ask the
question: Did the transistor and subsequent technologies fall into the
hands of AT&T from the Nazi Germans, the Japanese? Well, neither of them
had any of this stuff. Secret government project? Well, the United States
Government couldn't build any of this stuff. Half this stuff that we saw in
the Notebook...even today we don't even have some of the minerals, some of
the chemical materials, necessary to create them.

We decided we would ask the Secretary of Defense, William Cohen. In fact,
we got William Cohen and then his administrative assistant on the phone,
and the head of the Air Force OSI instantly on the phone with us, and sent
them a kit and kaboodle of stuff to take a look at. We asked them to come
down, take a look at things that we wanted explained in their original
context. Well, we've never heard from them about it. We haven't heard from
the Air Force or OSI - we filed OSI 9001 pages, demands, with them. We've
never heard a single word back from the OSI, the Air Force, the Pentagon.
They've kept their distance, accepted the requested requests and violated
the law, because under the law, when you give them these demands, they have
30 days to respond. Not a single response. As if to say, "You're not
influential enough to get us to respond to these."

In any event, we got nowhere with them so we decided we might embarrass
them a little bit. Now, how do you embarrass the Air Force? I mean,
sometimes they do a pretty good job of embarrassing themselves! But how do
you embarrass the Air Force, how do you embarrass William Cohen, the
Secretary of Defense, particularly in a time period when we're in the
middle of an ersatz situation of war with Iraq, when the Cold War is over?
You publish your findings; you have to have findings.
I was invited to appear a total of 15 times on radio shows, including Art
Bell again, Sightings, the Mike Jarmus Show, ABC News, and finally I turned
down the Larry King Live show. I'd just about had enough. I was on ABC
News, though, about three weeks ago.

We built two of the devices we saw in the Lab Shopkeeper's Notebook. One of
them was a semiconductor device. This semiconductor device we called the
"Transfer Capacitor", and it has actually shocked the industry. People
called me "lunatic" and "liar" and every conceivable name in the book for a
period of 11 months as we described the transfer capacitor's unusual
capability. It can be made about the size of a molecule, it can be
controlled by microvolts of electricity, it produces no heat and it
switches at 12 terahertz.

Does anyone know what a terahertz is? Intel Pentium's transistors switch at
500 megahertz or some small multiple thereabouts. This thing is 12,000
times faster than the fastest transistors we've ever built. We tested it.
We actually went out and got some silver alkane from a company in
Pennsylvania that makes semiconductor materials. We built one, we tested
it. We then realised that we could build it very dense.

We got some friends who operated a company called InMos, who had some
semiconductor materials, and over six months - this is two years ago - we
built an 8-gigabyte solid-state hard drive in a space about 'yay'
big...poker-chip-sized...operating at the same speed, 12 terahertz, capable
of replacing the memory of a PC. We subsequently built 2,500 of them and
sent them out in the form of test kits for people in industry to evaluate -
people who refused to believe that such a thing could exist. We sent them
to Rohm & Haas; we sent them to Intel. We got some of them back. People
didn't even want to look at them: "What is this nonsense?" Motorola
wouldn't take one, interestingly. Texas Instruments took one.

In any event, for six months I had to put up with some of the most
obnoxious, insulting, nasty comments you could imagine, even when I was at
meetings of my own professional conferences. "The crazy alien guy with his
flying-saucer transistor" - that was typical.

Ultimately what bailed us out was that a friend of mine who used to work
for IBM, now for Lucent, managed to convince his private funding agency to
give Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories a grant to check us out at ACC. He
picked Lawrence Berkeley because they probably have the highest integrity
of all the physics laboratories in the world - the ones who had the
10,000-foot racetrack, made out of 12 million tons of silver, that in 1947
must have knocked Henry Morganthal right out of his leather chair when it
was requested. They tested using the same procedures, but they had a much
better laser than we did. We only had a little laser at Princeton. They had
a big laser with which they could watch the movement of electrons, and they
verified not only the function but the speed. So, Lucent managed to
double-check our work, even though it won't officially admit it.

What the "T-cap" or Transfer Capacitor really is, is a metal-insulated
dielectric junction semiconductor based on silver alkane. It works on the
principle whereby electrons strike the bond in question, elevate its energy
level and, boom, what was an insulator becomes a conductor in a half of a
millionth of a billionth of a second! Very fast! It persists for about two
thousandths of those millionths of a billionths of a second and turns
itself off. We use two of them in a pair, one to refresh the other, and
they nearly never lose any electrons. Once we charge them up, they stay
charged for an hour. So we only need a tiny bit of power to power them.
They produce no heat. We can't measure heat from these things because the
heat, if it were there, is absorbed back into the substance, the silver
alkane, because of its unusual propensities.

Now, everyone who has ever owned a PC knows how much heat today's computer
microprocessors generate. It's unearthly! And the faster they get, the more
heat they generate. The power they consume is being turned into heat, like
a toaster oven. That's why people call PCs "video toasters". This thing, if
it were used to replace the transistors, the 130 million or so throughout
your PC, would produce no heat. Instead of consuming 150 watts, it would
probably consume one-thousandth of a watt. And it's been sitting on the
shelves for nearly 50 years!

In any event, we've got this story, and 9,000 messages and news items about
it. Really strange things and people that come on: a fellow by the name of
Wang on the private alleged web identities of two very public figures;
fraudulent publications about ACC; hackers who hack into our website.

If you go to our website and read through it, you'll be truly amazed.
You'll be stunned, you'll be shocked. You will also walk away no longer a
sceptic, if you were. If you're someone who believed, you will now see what
I call "third party circumstantial evidence" that verifies that something
very unusual happened in New Mexico in 1947.

We recently received, courtesy of the Russian Federation, a transcript of a
statement on the subject by Leonid Alexiev. Leonid Alexiev, a Russian
General, chaired a blue-ribbon committee to look into this in 1997, when it
was brought to their attention when Bill Clinton went to Russia and some
students stood up and said, "We saw this website called American Computer,
and there it was said that the Defense Department has a UFO in the United
States. Is this true, Mr Clinton?" Bill got up and said, "I don't know. No,
no, it's not true. But wait a minute. I tried to ask the Defense
Department, but they wouldn't tell me."

In any event, the Russians decided to put together this committee, and I
don't know if they spent the millions of dollars on our account; they might
have. They sent us a copy of the transcript of the report by Alexiev, which
was also carried on The Learning Channel, TLC, last week. The Russians have
decided there's an alien presence in our solar system, based on all the
evidence, on these things they've examined.

They've somehow got a hold of pictures of our transcapacitor from our lab.
I don't know how, because we've never taken any. Leave it to the Russians!
The KGB doesn't exist anymore; it's called the MSB now, right? And Alexiev
has gone public, as have the Russians, and as a result of his report he has
now been appointed by...what's the name of the head of the Russian
Republic, the drunken guy? Yeltsin...Boris has appointed him head of the
Russian Space Command.

As an aside, we thought we would solicit a few senators' opinions. We
solicited the offices of Senator Kennedy - another man who likes the glass
of wine occasionally. In any event, we got a very strange reaction from the
office of Senator Kennedy. They sent us a folio about a study that was done
on funding, that was publicised by the Senator's office. In the middle of
it they had yellowed out a section that talked about the deep space probe
series that NASA is sending out - the Deep Space 1. I think they're naming
them after that Star Trek show, Deep Space 9. When they get to nine, I
don't know what they'll do!

In any event, Deep Space 3 or Deep Space 4 is slated to receive a piece of
equipment called a "laser cannon". At Lincoln Labs there's a funded project
afoot to develop, on a rush basis, an offensive weapon based on laser
technology, because wherever this deep-space probe is going, they believe
they need it. Deep space is the space outside of the solar system, or at
the extreme ends of the solar system.

Apparently Senator Kennedy was one of the sponsors, but the senators and
congressmen do not hold the same opinion as the Defense Department and the
Air Force about whether there's an alien presence in or right outside of
our solar system.

So, right now, that's about where we're up to. We're starting to
commercialise the transfer capacitor and look at partners; we're going to
get it out there. We figured, why not? We've spent so much money on the
research investigation, we might as well see if we can sell these things to
people.
British Telecom has jumped in and stated they've placed a letter-of-intent
order with us. They're using it in a product they call the "Soul Catcher"
chip [see Global News, NEXUS 3/06, Oct&endash;Nov 1996]. We've had some
preliminary discussions with a company called Shipley, the world's largest
manufacturer of semiconductor materials.

We've had discussions with Intel, IBM. Just in the last few months, a guy
from IBM said, "You should have been dealing with us all along." "Well, why
didn't you come to us?" "Well, I'm coming to you now." "There are a lot of
people who are interested." "Well, we're IBM." "So? You had these in your
lab all along and couldn't get them to work!"

We're not sure what direction it's all going to go in, but I just wanted to
end with this. This morning, as I was going up in the elevator, I felt like
I was hanging upside down, holding the world up with my feet. The next time
you get in the elevator out there, think about that. That's how we feel at
ACC.
- Abolish the deciBel ! -

Rodney
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Re: A Little Transistor History?

Post by Rodney » Mon Sep 05, 2011 12:39 pm

Dean Huster wrote:Oh, what the heck .... I can help keep an old OP going. Anyone remember the Raytheon CK722? It was one of the most popular hobbyist transistors of the 1960s. You could get a bag of 10 of the things for a buck from Poly-Paks. 'Course, the Poly-Pak transistors didn't always work as advertised......
I bought two of those CK722 in 1956, had to pay $10 for the two of them. Still have them and the last time I checked them, they still worked. Later that year or maybe 1957, I paid just under $100 each for several silicon transistors from Texas Instrument for one of our military projects. Electronics is one of the few products where prices have come down and quality has gone up, both to the extreme compared to other products.

Robert Reed
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Re: A Little Transistor History?

Post by Robert Reed » Mon Sep 05, 2011 9:32 pm

Some story. Their website turns out to be American Credit Card Corporation!

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Externet
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Re: A Little Transistor History?

Post by Externet » Tue Sep 06, 2011 7:30 am

Yes, they may have gone belly-up in the last decade, closed or changed the web site, or whatever. A company with the same name does show to exist by LosAngeles area, with not much data about them.
- Abolish the deciBel ! -

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CeaSaR
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Re: A Little Transistor History?

Post by CeaSaR » Tue Sep 06, 2011 11:21 am

The ACC website is no longer, but a quick search shows some archived stuff.
Check out the v-j-enterpises and energeticforum links.

CeaSaR
Hey, what do I know?

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CeaSaR
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Re: A Little Transistor History?

Post by CeaSaR » Tue Sep 06, 2011 11:31 am

MrAl wrote:Hi,


I also found a couple 2N4048 transistors, which are 'high speed germanium' transistors.
I wonder if they are made anymore.
4starelectronics has 2465 in stock - no idea if they are new or NOS.
ic2ic shows in stock, "New&Origianl" listed at numerous places.

This without looking at any of my regular spots.

CeaSaR
Hey, what do I know?

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Bob Scott
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Re: A Little Transistor History?

Post by Bob Scott » Tue Sep 06, 2011 6:40 pm

Externet wrote:Yes, they may have gone belly-up in the last decade, closed or changed the web site, or whatever. A company with the same name does show to exist by LosAngeles area, with not much data about them.
Yeah, this "American Computer Company" smells bogus. There is no such entry in Wikipedia or Google as you might expect there to be. And, they supposedly manufactured nanotechnology en masse memory cells without a fault.

I used to think that UFOs might be real, but in over 60 years no one has been able to take a clear picture of one....I suppose if there were a clear picture, you could read the "CHEVROLET" on the flying hubcap. For example, if you Google Images of "Ohare airport UFO" there is one really clear picture showing the UFO over the airport with the UFO shadow on the ground. Seeing as the incident occured in Chicago at 4PM in November, very near sunset, the location of the shadow is a dead givaway that the photo is bogus.
-=VA7KOR=- My solar system includes Pluto.

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